DiscussionResponse

On ‘cyber trafficking’ and the protection of its victims

‘Cyber trafficking’ has become a buzzword in scientific and policy discussions related to human trafficking. However, as has been noted elsewhere, the term is far from being used in a uniform way. In her recent post, Sabine Witting discusses the case of trafficking that is exclusively committed online. In my view, ‘cyber trafficking’ is a much more wide-spread phenomenon than what her article seems to imply, occurring within many cases …

READ MORE →

DiscussionKick-off

‘Cyber’ Trafficking? An Interpretation of the Palermo Protocol in the Digital Era

The digital era has changed the traditional realm and modus operandi of organised crime, such as human trafficking. With the increasing access to and usage of the internet, major criminal activity has expanded to the online sphere. Law enforcement around the world is however largely not prepared for combatting cybercrime. Many states have not yet reached the capacity of drafting cyber specific legislation. In Africa for example, only 11 states …

READ MORE →

DiscussionResponse

The role of the ICC and of non-State actors concerning the protection of cultural heritage

International cultural heritage law is a vast and complex field of research which involves many actors, as the previous contribution by Adrianna Michel shows. In response, we would like to give a couple of thoughts on two of the issues raised by the author: the role of the International Criminal Court (ICC), and the role of non-States actors. Regarding the ICC, the condemnation of Ahmad Al Faqi Al Mahdi for …

READ MORE →

DiscussionKick-off

Kulturgüterschutz – eine Verpflichtung gegenüber der uns nachfolgenden Generation

Die heutigen Formen der Bedrohung von Kulturgütern sind vielschichtig. Neben der Zerstörung in bewaffneten Konflikten oder aus religiösem Wahn spielen auch der Raub und die Verschleppung in und nach kriegerischen Auseinandersetzungen eine wesentliche Rolle. In den letzten Jahren hat sich in tragischer Weise gezeigt, dass islamistische Fundamentalisten immer häufiger mit der Zerstörung von bedeutenden Kulturgütern die Bühne der Weltöffentlichkeit suchen. Die Zerstörungswut richtet sich gezielt gegen die zivilisierte Wertegemeinschaft. Unersetzliche …

READ MORE →

Current DevelopmentsDiscussionResponse

Die Büchse der Pandora

Auch bei einem Giftgaseinsatz erlaubt das Völkerrecht aus gutem Grund keine militärische Strafaktion

Eine Replik auf den Beitrag von Alexander Groß. In der Nacht vom 6. auf den 7. April hat die US-Navy 59 Tomahawk Marschflugkörper  auf den Stützpunkt der syrischen Luftwaffe Shayrat in der Nähe von Homs abgefeuert. Neun syrische Soldaten sind dabei vermutlich getötet worden. Der Angriff soll eine Reaktion auf den vermutlichen Einsatz des Giftgases Sarin durch syrische Streitkräfte in dem Dorf Khan Sheikhun sein. Syrien bestreitet allerdings den Einsatz …

READ MORE →

Current DevelopmentsDiscussionKick-off

Am Ende des Rechts angelangt – schon wieder

Der mutmaßliche Giftgas-Angriff des Assad-Regimes in Syrien lässt die Vereinigten Staaten zu militärischen Mitteln im nach wie vor andauernden Syrienkonflikt greifen. Der russische Staatspräsident Wladimir Putin hält auch prompt das Vorgehen der Trump-Administration für völkerrechtswidrig. Das Völkerrecht stößt bei der geeigneten Antwort auf diese barbarischen Taten an seine Grenzen. Wo das (Völker-)Recht keine befriedigenden Antworten mehr geben kann, darf jedoch nicht weggeschaut werden. Im Gegensatz zu seinem amerikanischen Amtskollegen gilt …

READ MORE →

DiscussionResponse

Does transnational environmental crime and transnational fisheries crime exist in international law?

Yes, and it is thriving.

In her post, Professor Elliott argues for a ‘levels-of-analysis’ approach to understanding transnational environmental crime. I made a similar argument in a Chapter entitled ‘Fisheries Crime’ in Elliott and Schaedla’s recent book, where I propose three different dimensions to the analysis of ‘fisheries crime’: As a concept in law or the ‘legal procedural perspective’, where ‘fisheries crime’ is an umbrella term for a number of criminal offences, As a criminological phenomenon …

READ MORE →

DiscussionResponse

The battle against transnational fisheries crime

Jurisdictional challenges

The raison d’être of the concept of transnational ‘fisheries crime’ (TFC) (INTERPOL 2013) or ‘marine resource crime’ (UNODC 2011) can be traced to endemic illicit activities in the fisheries sector which, due to their devastating impacts, are increasingly considered as a serious problem worthy of attention as ‘criminal’ rather than merely ‘illegal’ behaviour. In terms of scope and approach, TFC is a broader and perhaps more ambitious successor of the …

READ MORE →

DiscussionResponse

Transnational environmental crime: a challenging problem but not yet a legal concept

A response to Lorraine Elliott Transnational environmental crime is both a challenging reality and a legal concept in the making. From an international law point of view, this concept is currently being defined by soft law instruments that are transmitting normative expectations about the way States may address it rather than prescribing legal provisions. These instruments are paving the way for the future development of international agreements and play an …

READ MORE →

DiscussionKick-off

‘Green Crime’

Transnational Environmental Crimes as a new category of international crimes?

Millions of dollars worth of smuggled elephant ivory intercepted by customs officers each year, shipping containers filled with hundreds of tonnes of illegally traded pangolin scales and kiln-dried geckoes, forests plundered for high-end timber species, rampant criminality in the fisheries sector, and the illegal disposal of hazardous waste across borders: in a report released in June 2016, INTERPOL described environmental crime as a growing international problem that threatens natural resources, …

READ MORE →