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Blackmarketing “Bundeswehr” Weapons in Northern Iraq

Applying a Due Diligence Approach to Arms Transfers?

In September 2014, the German army started shipping weapons from its own stocks to the security forces of the Kurdish autonomous region in Northern Iraq (Peshmerga) to support the fight against the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, also known as Da’esh). Strong reservations arguing that these weapons might end up in the wrong hands and likely be used to commit human rights violations were voiced, especially considering …

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Cross-border surrogacy transactions (CBST):

Can consumers’ states choose whether or not to regulate?

Whether surrogacy is ethical or not is subject to lively debate. But so far, it is the prerogative of each sovereign state to decide whether to allow or forbid in its territory the provision of surrogacy treatments, according to its own national values. However, when citizens’ personal values and interests do not go hand in hand with the chosen regulation of their home state (consumers’ state), globalization enables them to …

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Is the Islamic State a State?

The so-called Islamic State has triggered a wave of commentary ever since it emerged as one of the leading military groups in Syria and further captured vast parts of Iraqi territory in mid-2014. What seems to have received only little attention this far is its legal characterization.

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Which Rights to enforce in Time of Public Emergency?

The European Court of Human Right’s approach towards International Humanitarian Law

The present post examines the relationship between human rights law (“HRL”) and international humanitarian law (“IHL”). This relationship will be first analysed from a legal-dogmatic angle, and then in the light of the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights (“the Court”)”. By focussing solely on the right to derogate from the European Convention on Human Rights pursuant to Article 15, this post will show that the Court’s approach …

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Thinking globally, acting regionally

Towards the regionalization of international criminal law

In June 2014, the African Union (AU) General Assembly adopted the Malabo Protocol that attempts to change the AU court system as well as international criminal law (ICL) in a radical – yes, even revolutionary way. The Protocol foresees the creation of an integrated African Court of Justice and Human Rights featuring a human rights chamber, a general affairs chamber and a criminal law chamber that has jurisdiction over natural …

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Menschenrechte als Antwort auf Verteilungsfragen im transnationalen Rohstoffrecht

Dieser Beitrag setzt unsere Journal-Kooperation mit der “Verfassung und Recht in Übersee” fort und diskutiert einen Aufsatz von Isabel Feichtner zum internationalen Rohstoffrecht, der in der nächsten Ausgabe der VRÜ erscheint. Isabel Feichtner lenkt unseren Blick auf Rechtsfragen der internationalen Rohstoffwirtschaft, die in den letzten Jahrzehnten nicht im Mittelpunkt der Völkerrechtswissenschaft standen, obwohl gerade auch in jüngerer Zeit vermehrt entsprechende politische und rechtssetzende Aktivitäten zu beobachten sind. Exemplarisch lässt sich …

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When climate change hits the Arctic: what to make of recent rules and approaches

Climate change in the Arctic Climate change, in particular global warming, is an inevitable fact. Nonetheless, it will hit different regions of the world differently. Of all regions, the area most affected by future temperature change is the Arctic. This is the part of the global north, which is situated above 66,3 degrees latitude. Here, differences in temperatures are predicted to rise at least 3 degrees Celsius compared to the …

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The regulatory dimension of TTIP and the global competition of economic systems

Reflections on the on-going dispute over Europe’s external trade policy

The proposed comprehensive free trade agreement (FTA) between the EU and the US bearing the name ‘Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership’ (or TTIP), continues to inflame passions within significant sections of the European public. The self-organized European citizens’ initiative ‘Stop TTIP‘ with its over 3 million signatures stands paradigmatically for the wide-spread concerns among large parts of civil society. Nevertheless, political leaders are determined to follow through with the undertaking …

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Anwendung humanitärvölkerrechtlicher Normen in asymmetrischen Konflikten

– Extensive Auslegung oder „Lawfare“-Methode?

Es ist bei Weitem kein Novum zu behaupten, dass die Konfliktstrukturen des 21. Jahrhunderts mit denen des klassischen humanitären Völkerrechts nur noch schwer vergleichbar sind. Die Zeiten staatlicher Duellkriege sind vorüber, Handlungen nichtstaatlicher Gewaltakteure prägen heute maßgeblich die weltweite Konfliktlage und führten zu einer Anpassung nationaler Sicherheitsstrategien. So wurde am 20. September 2001 mit dem „War on Terror“ zum ersten Mal einem Phänomen der Krieg erklärt – im technischen Sinn …

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Ascertaining Customary International Law – a relatively straightforward matter?

This blog post refers to the recent findings of the International Law Commission’s (ILC) topic now entitled “Identification of Customary International Law” and addresses some issues, which still remain unsettled even in its current third report (A/CN.4/682) and which call for further considerations. Irrespective of the dispute about the proper theory of customary international law a settled methodology for ascertaining the existence of a rule of customary international law is …

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